454 HISTORY OF PERSIA CHAP. day was actually won by the cavalry and artillery. The Persians retreated in fair order and were not effectively pursued, owing to the smallness of the force of cavalry and its reckless and unnecessary use in the action. Had it been properly handled the defeat might have been converted into a rout. The next operation was directed against Mohamera. In March the expeditionary force re-embarked and made for the Shatt-ul-Arab. Mohamera, which had been made over to the Persians by the treaty of Erzeroum,1 had been strongly fortified with heavy batteries on both banks of the Karun. Outranks task was consequently difficult, and it appears to have been conducted with great skill. A mortar battery was prepared on a raft, and this was towed upstream by night to a point opposite the Persian battery on the right bank of the Karun, no attempt being made to prevent its passage. In the morning the fire from the steamers, aided by the mortar battery, silenced the forts, the transports were towed up into the Karun, and the troops were landed two miles above Mohamera. The Persians fled, leaving their guns, munitions, and camp behind them. Outram sent a flotilla up the Karun as far as Ahwaz, which was occupied, while the Persian army retreated. This concluded the operations. The Conclusion of Peace-, 1857.—The Persian Govern- ment had sued for peace directly after the capture of Bushire, and the treaty had actually been signed before the Karun expedition took place, but in the absence of telegraphic communication news of the signature did not reach Outram in time. By the terms of the treaty, con- cluded in Paris, the Shah agreed to evacuate Afghanistan and to recognize its independence. He furthermore agreed that, in case of future disputes between the two Powers, recourse should be made to the good offices of . Great Britain before resort to arms. A suitable apology was tendered to the British Envoy ; and, as Mirza Hashim had already made -his peace and all imputations against his wife had been withdrawn, the original cause ot the breach of relations had disappeared. The Persians 1 For this treaty vide Chapter LXXIX.